Queho'st Gaurd, Lake Mead
June 12, 2004
The Drowned Towns Tour
Dedicated: June 12, 2004
The Keepsake of the Third Sailing of the Queho-st Guard, conducted at the direction of
NGH Dann "Fuzzy" DeBoer,
By the Queho Posse Chapter 1919
of the Ancient and Honourable Order of E Clampus Vitus,
June 12, 2004. (ECV 6009
This keepsake has been written by
XNGH and Clamphistorian Mark Hall-Patton
for the enjoyment, elucidation, entertainment, elementary elecution, and obvious obfuscation of the assembled redshirted brethren.
The Obfuscationist Press
6009 ecv / 2004 ce
The Drowned Towns Tour
The Third Sailing of the Queho-st Guard
The Annual Candlelight Daylight Cruise
Of the Queho Posse
Of the Ancient and Honourable Order of
E Clampus Vitus
Under the direction of
Dann "Fuzzy" DeBoer, NGH
June 12, 6009/2004
Lost City, the first residential subdivision
Lost City is the name which was given to a series of Anasazi dwellings located along the Muddy River from present-day Overton south for about 25 to 30 miles. The residences and working places were probably inhabited about 600 AD, and were noted by the early pioneers in Southern Nevada. J. T. McWilliams surveyed the ruins in the early part of the 20th century
McWilliams was an interesting early Las Vegas resident. He was a surveyor employed by the Salt Lake City, Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad when it was being built through what later became Las Vegas. Realizing there would be a community built at the site of the Las Vegas Springs, he quit the railroad, and surveyed his own community of Las Vegas, offering lots a year before the current city of Las Vegas began. Unfortunately, he did not have access to the major water source in the valley, though artesian wells were located on some of his lots. He thought the Railroad would buy him out, but instead they bypassed his town site, laid out their own, and started selling lots. Since they owned the water, and had the train station, McWilliams' effort was unsuccessful. His town later became the area known as the Westside in today's Vegas Valley.
The Lost City is a series of structures. They were excavated during the 1920s by Mark Harrington during the 1920s and 1930s, after he had been shown the site by Fay Perkins, a local resident who, with his brother John, had located many of the sites. Mark Harrington was a well-known archaeologist, and later Director of the Southwest Museum. Many artifacts were recovered, and eventually a museum, the Lost City Museum, was built. Civilian Conservation Corps labor was used in building the museum building, as well as helping with the excavations.
The original builders lived in the dwellings from about 700 AD (4705 ECV) to about 1100 AD (5105 ECV). They were the Virgin River branch of the Anasazi, also known as the Basketmaker people, and later by the Puebloan people. The residents grew the first cotton and corn in the area, long before western man arrived in the area, and mined salt at sites now under Lake Mead.
Extensive trading routes connected the Lost City area to other Puebloan people, allowing for trade in needed materials, including turquoise, obsidian, and shells. Pottery made in Southern Nevada has been found at sites as distant as the four corners area and the Gulf of California.
Much of Lost City, which Harrington named Pueblo Grande de Nevada, was drowned as the waters of Lake Mead rose behind Hoover Dam. Some traces are now becoming visible again
St. Thomas, Utah Territory, Arizona Territory, Nevada
The community of St. Thomas was founded on January 8, 1865. It was one of a large number of Mormon settlements created in answer to the directions of Brigham Young, who was looking to strengthen the Church's hold on the southwestern corner of the Utah Territory. Anson Call had already been sent to locate a suitable crossing of the Colorado River, for the many Mormon converts who were attempting to come home to the state of Deseret, as directed by the church.
Many of these converts were from overseas, especially England. Their journey overland from the east coast was a long and arduous one, and it was decided to bring them to the west coast and then up the Colorado River. Callville, Anson Call's settlement, was an attempt to provide a needed port on the river.
St. Thomas got its name from Thomas Smith, who was the leader of the group of settlers sent to found the town. It was one of many such communities, including St. Joseph, located about eight miles north of St. Thomas about where Overton is today, Simonsville, and West Point.
The community was laid out with 85 home sites of one acre each, 85 vineyard sites of two and one half acres each, and 85 farm sites of five acres each. The original settlers numbered twelve, and settled near the junction of the Muddy and Virgin rivers.
The new settlement grew quickly, and by April Erastus Snow, President of the church, visited St. Thomas and found that plantings for the growing season were well underway. 900 acres had been surveyed, and 600 were under cultivation. A rock salt mine was located near the town, which provided a hard currency export.
The community was successful, but the location was a bit off. The Mormon settlers thought they were well within the boundaries of Utah, but in fact they were in the Arizona Territory, in an area soon to be made the county of Pah-ute. The settlers found out early that they were actually in Arizona. By August, a delegation from the Arizona Territory visited the new community, informing the settlers they were Arizona. They were asked to hold an election on September 5 to select a delegate to the Territorial Legislature
When September 5th rolled around, no election was held, and taxes continued to be paid to Utah rather than Arizona.
The Mormon authorities visited yearly, for the purposes of reviewing progress within the settlements. Often, they would cover all the small communities along the Muddy River.
St. Thomas residents grew wheat, cotton, sugar cane, corn, and garden vegetables. They also raised cattle, but this was difficult in a land where the local Native American tribes, mostly Utes and Paiutes, were constantly raiding the crops. In 1866, the Black Hawk War occurred between the white settlers and the Utes. St. Thomas was relocated slightly, and a fort built for defense. Eventually, a battalion of the Nauvoo Legion, the Utah Militia, was organized to deal with the problems.
The problems they expected, however, came from a different location. In 1864, Nevada became a state, but its eastern and western borders were not yet surveyed and located. By 1867, the new state had been given the option of extending its southern boundary to the point where the diagonal on the west side of the state connected with the Colorado, and then back up on the eastern side of the state. Though it took Nevada's state legislature over six months to agree to the new land, it officially became part of Nevada in 1867.
The authorities in the Arizona territory, from which the land was being taken, scrambled to create a county which included the land being lost, as an attempt to lay a better claim. This was Pah-ute County, from which Octavious Decatur Gass, who had purchased the Las Vegas Rancho some years previously. Gass, for whom Gass and Decatur streets are named today, served for a year in the Arizona Territorial Legislature, even though his home was in Nevada.
The confusion extended to the Post Office Department, which noted the Post Office of St. Thomas as being in Washington County, Utah Territory, when it was started On July 23, 1866, and then moved the location to Pah-ute County, Arizona Territory, on October 1, 1868, and then finally placed it in Lincoln (later Clark) County, Nevada, in April 1871.
In 1869, Nevada finally decided to lay claim to the territory, especially because tax dollars were being sent to Utah and Arizona, and not to Carson City. John Norton, tax assessor of Lincoln County, assessed the communities along the Muddy, and the mining operations in El Dorado Canyon. When informed of the new tax assessment, and the threats to sell farms for back taxes if the owners did not send their taxes in, the Mormon settlers were advised to wait until the official survey was completed.
It was, and Utah and Arizona lost. Many of the settlers decided to leave, and St. Thomas was nearly deserted. This exodus in 1870 left crops in the fields, and buildings behind, as the saints returned to Utah. Among the few who stayed was Daniel Bonelli, who was somewhat embittered by his experience. He was referenced in the Reese River Reveille as saying:
"The writer then proceeds to point out the repeated failures of enterprises undertaken at the command of the inspired Priesthood, and finally comes to the conclusion that Brigham Young does not interview God Almighty near as often as he pretends to, else he would not make so many egregious blunders."
In 1872, Bonelli, along with Lewis Siebrecht, Thomas Belding, and Hans Gottfredsen, located promising ore deposits a few miles east of the town site, and organized the St. Thomas Mining District. They found gold in white quartz veins in the area, and located mica, and important mineral for the nineteenth century. Mica was used in stoves and role down shades, as it could be split thin enough to be seen though. In this form it is called Isinglass. In 1905, the area was rediscovered, and eventually a mining camp named Gold Butte was developed in 1908. It was abandoned by 1910.
The Mormon settlers eventually began returning to St. Thomas and the other Muddy River settlements in 1880. By 1881, Myron Angel, writing in his History of Nevada, noted that St. Thomas was considered the primary of the towns, given its proximity to the Colorado River.
Angel noted that during the years before the Mormon departure, they had planted 400,000 shade trees, 50,000 grapevines and fruit trees, and had irrigated about 3,000 acres of land. Much of the land had passed out of Mormon control, and when they returned, they had to purchase back many of the same farms they had developed, mostly at $1.25 per acre. In describing the area for his history, Angel said,
"No society has existed here since the Mormon exodus in 1871. The region has been sparsely settled, and mostly by a transient element, having no religious profession or name in which any considerable number agreed."
After returning, the community was rebuilt, and became the center for a large farming district. By the early twentieth century, many new crops were being grown in the area. Cantaloupe was a great success, with, among others, two Korean farmers being involved in 1913 when the new crop was introduced. In 1905, the state established an experimental farm near St. Thomas, which tried various new crops for the area. Another new crop was asparagus.
The town, though not large, did become a railhead on June 7, 1912. The St. Thomas Branch off the Union Pacific continued to operate until the demise of the town. The celebration for the arrival of the train brought out nearly 200 people from Las Vegas to join in the festivities.
It was not many years later, though, that the small community's fate was sealed by events happening thousands of miles away. In 1920, the Black Canyon Project got underway. This was destined to build one of the world's great dams, but when completed, the flooding would destroy the town.
St. Thomas, which boasted a school, stores, Highway 91, which was routed through the Valley of Fire to St. Thomas, then out through Overton to about where Interstate 15 is today, rodeos, Corn Celebrations, and many other community events, was to be no more. It was many years before the Federal Government would pay the residents for their land. The process took about eighteen years, during which time residents were in limbo.
In 1925, the highway was relocated. In 1926, government appraisals finally began for land and buildings, but payment was not made until 1932. One member of the appraisal committee, Leland Syphus, was credited with single handedly helping residents get as much as possible for their land.
The town, though now completely owned by the government, continued to exist for six more years, at least as a post office. On June 11, 1938, the Post Office of St. Thomas closed forever, after canceling approximately 4,000 last day envelopes.
One man, however, did not want to leave. This was Hugh Lord, who had vowed to stay until the water was lapping at his bed. Unfortunately, the water rose too fast, and he left early, setting fire to his home and leaving in a rowboat for the shore.
Many buildings were dismantled and moved, and the town disappeared under the waters of Lake Mead. It was not to be the end of the town however.
As early as 1945, the town reappeared during a low water period at the lake. Again, in the 1950s and 1960s, the town reappeared on a couple of occasions, always bringing former and area residents out to see the foundations of the town. Today, in 2004, the foundations have reappeared, the remnants of one of the earliest white communities in Southern Nevada.
Junction City / Rioville / Bonelli's Landing
As a community, Junction City was the shortest lived of all the early Mormon settlements now under Lake Mead, with the exception of Callville. Founded in February 1869, the original settlement was abandoned within two years. It was also known as Junctionville, though Junction City was its official name.
It was located at the junction of the Virgin and Colorado Rivers, and was intended as a crossing for Mormon emigrants to Utah coming up the Colorado River. After a hard beginning, with many Paiute raids on the crops of the settlers, kept the community from growing. When it became known that the area was part of the State of Nevada, and not Utah, nearly all the residents left to return to Utah.
Daniel Bonelli, a Swiss immigrant and convert to the Mormon faith, moved to the abandoned site in 1875. He had been living at St. Thomas, and retained his home there even after all the other Mormon residents returned to Utah. He built a ferry at the old Junction City, and the site became known as Bonelli Landing. In 1880, when Mormons again returned to the Muddy River area of Southern Nevada, some came to Bonelli's landing, reoccupying the buildings built earlier.
The new community was named Rioville, and a post office was established in 1881. The town never really flourished, though it hung on until the death of Daniel Bonelli in 1904, and being bypassed by the railroad in 1905. The post office closed in 1906.
The Lost Metropolis of Callville
The first westerner who is known to have used the Callville wash as a route to the Colorado River was Antonio Armijo, in January 1830. He was looking for a less difficult route than that of today's Boulder Canyon, the site of Hoover Dam, and found it to be a good substitute.
It was quite a few years before the area was again being used. In 1847, the plucky band of pioneers know as the Saints, or adherents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, following Brigham Young, made their way into the valley of the Great Salt Lake. Young and the Saints were intent on developing the land, and began exploring outward from the Great Salt Lake, throughout today's Utah, Nevada, northern Arizona, and parts of California.
As part of these explorations, Young sent an exploring party under the command of Rufus Allen south to find a suitable location of the Colorado River for a shipping port. He was unsuccessful, but that same year saw William Bringhurst also sent south to exploit an area on the Old Spanish Trail known as the meadows for its plentiful water, or in the Spanish language, Las Vegas.
Bringhurst's community did not prosper, and the Saints were called home after only a few years. Young had not given up on the idea of settling the area, and reacted strongly when news reached him from Jacob Hamblin of the appearance of a United States Corps of Topographical Engineers expedition up the Colorado.
This was the Lt. Joseph Ives expedition, which set out from Robinson's Landing, about 60 miles south of Yuma, in December 1857. Traveling north in the Explorer, an iron-hulled stern-wheeler, the explorers made their way as far north as Explorer's Rock, about four miles north of the current site of Hoover Dam. Though he did not reach Callville Wash, Hamblin and two other Mormons who were dealing with the natives of the area spotted Ives.
Word reached Young, and he decided that a Mormon presence on the river was necessary. It took six more years, until 1864, before Young was ready for his move. At the General Assembly of the church that year, Young spoke. He announced,
We shall want another path to bring home the Saints, and we want to prepare for it. The Colorado River is only a short way from St. George, and if I lived there I would soon have steamboats passing up the river, and it would serve as an island station for the other communities and outpost to furnish supplies to the immigrants bound for Salt Lake.
Young was serious. He chose Anson Call to locate a site and found a community for shipping on the river.
Call was from Vermont. Born in 1810, he had converted to the Mormon religion in 1854. By 1855, he was the Bishop of Bountiful (perhaps presciently, as he eventually had five wives and 23 children). In 1856, Young sent him to the Washoe Valley near Snowshoe Thompson and Julia Bullette territory, to help settle that area.
He was able to get along well with the various Indian tribes in the area, and eventually adopted two Indian children as his own. He returned to his home in Bountiful in 1857, but when called by Young in 1864, he willingly went.
In his journal, Call noted that he was called on November 1, 1864, to,
take an exploring company and locate a road to the Colorado River and find a suitable place for a warehouse, and build the same, and form a settlement at or near the site of the landing.
He began the journey in mid-November, arriving in St. George on November 24. He then left with a party of five, including Jacob Hamblin, Lyman Hamblin, his son, Dr. J.M. Whitmore, and Angus M. Canon. On December 2, 1864, Call recorded,
We started at eight and one-half and journied a southwest course for ten miles further in a south southwest course when we turned south till we came to the Colorado River a mile below the narrows above the mouth of the Black Canyon. About one half of a mile below the mouth of the wash we found a black, rocky point which we considered a suitable location for the erection of a warehouse above the high water mark; here we considered the best landing could be established. We found the river of reddish color and about 150 yards wide...Our judgement is that the water might be taken out about a mile above the landing and conveyed down to the bottom a short distance below where we have camped. Containing about 200 acres of good land. Beaver abound.
It is interesting to note that even today, nearly 150 years later, beaver (the kind used for hats) have been found in the Clark County Wetlands Preserve in the Vegas valley.
Call's site was soon known as Call's Landing, or Callville. It was not an auspicious area to build, being many miles over unbroken land to the nearest communities in either Eldorado Canyon to the south, or St. George and Santa Clara to the north. It was to be the site, though exploration continued by Calls party for a few weeks more. The eventually made it as far south as Hardy's Landing, near Fort Mohave, where they were able to witness the launching of the first boat built there, the Arizona. Call thought Hardy's Landing was well built, and spoke highly of it in his report back to Salt Lake.
William Hardy, however, was not pleased by the prospect of competition, and did not promote the new river landing.
After returning to the Callville site on December 17, a community was laid out, comprising 40 lots that were to be 100 feet square. Call determined where the warehouse was to be built. Call then left the new community's site, leaving his son-in-law James Davids, and Jacob Hamblin's son Lyman to begin the foundations for the warehouse.
By March of 1865, Call returned with one of his wives, Mary Ann, a surveyor to plat the new town site, and tools and materials to begin building. Building materials were not easily located, and the building was eventually built from limestone quarried nearby. Roof timbers were cut at the Spring Mountain Ranch, later site of the April 13, 1997, Queho Posse doins. Roofing material was shipped in by steamer.
The warehouse was substantial enough that when Lake Mead backed up behind Hoover Dam during the 1930s, the walls of the warehouse were still standing. They are today under several hundred feet of water.
While building was going on, local Indians were employed to look for the steamboat that was to be coming upriver. Unfortunately, they were unaware of what kind of a beast a steamboat was, and reported back that they had not seen the beast, but had located its footprints. The workers on the warehouse decided to see the tracks, and also did not recognize them. They followed them for some time, eventually finding a very tame camel. Capturing it, they sent it back to its owner in Salt Lake City, a Mr. john Young. How Young had acquired the camel is unknown, but it was probably one of those brought to the southwest as part of the government's experiment under Lt. Beale.
Building continued on the site, and Call began working on a shipping agreement. He was successful in signing an agreement with R. G. Sneath form San Francisco, and decided to open the Callville warehouse in the spring of 1866. Sneath sent Henry Dibble as agent for his company, which was a bit of a change for Dibble. Being used to the cosmopolitan lifestyle of San Francisco, he none-the-less made a go of it in the frontier community of Callville.
Callville was getting to be a quite a location. In May of 1865, the county of Pah-Ute had been created by the territorial legislature of Arizona, Southern Nevada being part of the Lost Dutchman territory at the time. Callville was selected as the County Seat of the Pah-Ute, and Octavious Decatur Gass was the territorial legislator.
Gass, for whom Gass Street in Las Vegas, as well as Decatur Avenue, were named, was the owner of the Las Vegas Rancho, but listed a residence in Callville during the period the community was the county seat. Callville held this position until October 1867.
While the county seat, Callville became a shipping site. The first steamboat to try to reach the new community was the Esmeralda, which was within only a few miles when it turned around and landed downstream at Eldorado Canyon. The turn was occasioned by rumors circulated by William Hardy, the aforementioned founder of Hardy's Landing.
Though hardy was able to intercept this first shipment, later ones did make it through. Callville became the northernmost point on the Colorado River steamboats could reach, though the trip was not an easy one. The major problem was the area of the river that became known as Ringbolt Rapids in Black Canyon. This section of rapids was considered nearly impassible, until a plan was hatched to embed large iron rings in the walls of the canyon. These were used with a cable and winch arrangement on the steamers. The cable was fitted into the ring, and the winch would be used to pull the steamer through the rapids.
The two steamers that regularly made the trip were the Esmeralda, and the Nina Tilden. Outfitted with the winch, these steamers began plying the river. On October 8, 1866, the Esmeralda became the first steamer to make its way to the new settlement. Throughout the rest of 1866, and during the high water periods of 1867, shipments were regular to the landing.
Callville had a problem, though, as a transshipment location. The road from the landing to St. George was nearly impassable. It went though incredible canyons, and crossed the Muddy and Virgin Rivers a number of times, often with fords, not bridges.
Callville was non-the-less becoming known. It received a post office on January 25, 1867. The office was in operation until June 15, 1869. This was the ending period of the community, for by 1869 it was nearly defunct.
In 1866, rumors were flying that the local Indians planned to make trouble for the settlers. Gass, as a territorial legislator, pressured the Army to station troops near Callville. In January 1867, a Captain yard, one sergeant, and 9 privates were detached from Camp El Dorado to set up a presence at Callville.
Though they had 30 days rations, the assignment was not a pleasant one. By February, one of the privates had deserted, and a second detachment of 9 men had arrived, making the army presence number 18. This was only for a short time, as soon after that the presence only number 8 or 9 men through its existence.
As the expected Indian troubles never materialized, and the site was a truly god-forsaken one, the army wanted to pull out their men. Callville had all of three residents, so the army actually outnumbered the residents. The army rotated through men, with eventually 47 men being stationed there. Of those, six eventually deserted, and one committed suicide. Still representing Pah-Ute County in the Arizona Territorial Legislature, Gass was able to keep the presence there until March of 1868, but thereafter the army left, with probably some variant on the term "good riddance" left in their wake.
Pah-Ute was created in 1865, and by 1866 the federal government passed a bill that allowed the territory to be annexed by the state of Nevada. Arizona was opposed to this, but Nevada accepted the new territory in 1867. Arizona, was unwilling to accept the actions of the United States Congress, and continued to seat a delegate from another state's territory as part of their own. It was not until 1869, that the Territorial Legislature rescinded the bill that had created the county, which was no longer their territory.
Callville had had its day. When visited in April 1868, Inspector Charles A. Whittier found no white residents in the community. By 1869, the community was considered a ghost town. When horse thieves tried to cross the river later that year, they used the doors from the old Callville warehouse, but their makeshift raft fell apart, and most were drowned.
Callville's last brush with possible glory came in 1869. John Wesley Powell, a one-armed explorer who had decided to be the first to traverse by boat the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, selected Callville as the terminus of the journey. Through incredible trials and tribulations, six of the nine men of the expedition, including Powell, reached St. Thomas at the end of their trip. A few continued on to the Gulf of California and the terminus of the Colorado, but Callville was hardly mentioned in the records of the expedition.
It is interesting to note that Myron Angel, in his 1881 history of Nevada, listed Callville as still functioning, and as the head of navigation on the Colorado. A petition had been presented to the United States Congress sometime around 1880 for $250,000 to improve the navigation on the Colorado. This was never granted. He even noted that a charter had been obtained for a railroad to link Eureka and Callville. Though the railroad was never built, it appears the dream took a long time to die.
Anson Call had left the community named for him by 1867, and returned north to Bountiful. He lived until 1890, well longer than the community he founded.
The structures at Callville, especially the warehouse, still stood in the 1930s, when Lake Mead began to fill. A local school teacher [and diligent local historian] decided to photograph the site, which gave us the best photographic record of the ruins before Lake Mead brought an end to their scenic nature.
Today, the site is under a few hundred feet of water. It is still there, as is the memory of the short lived community. Callville Wash is a well-known stop for boaters on lake Mead, and the scene of numerous bass and other fishing tournaments. Anson Call was a man of vision, for could any man with five mothers-in-law not be? He took to heart the truth of the statement, "be fruitful and multiply", siring 23 children.
Kaolin, the Armenian looking land
The small farming community of Kaolin was founded in 1910. A group of destitute Armenian Mormon converts were directed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints to come to Southern Nevada for a possible community. They had decided the Utah was not to their liking.
Under the leadership of Mr. F. F. Hintze, they settled a little north of St. Thomas, in an area that reminded them of their home in Armenia. The community was named after Kaolin clay, which was mined in the vicinity.
The Armenians did not stay long, moving away after about two years. Since the land was actually owned by the church, not the Armenians, other families from Southern Utah were later moved to the area. They moved into the houses that had been vacated by the traveling Armenians.
The small community eventually boasted a post office, school, and about 100 residents. The school operated between 1913 and 1922, when it was merged with the Logandale School and students were bused to Logandale. At its largest, there were about 35 students at the Kaolin school. High School students went to Overton.
The post office was opened in 1914, and operated until August 31, 1932, when mail service was moved to Overton. One of the first postmasters, Patience Parthena Jones Lee, came from Mexico and was remembered for being one of the best cooks in the community.
Residents stayed on until 1932, though most had departed by 1930. The federal government purchased their property, and the funds helped residents to start over. The rising waters of Lake Mead inundated the farms and streets of the small farming community.
A Brief Bibliography for those who are so inclined as to continue their learning.
Angel, Myron, A History of Nevada, 1881, Thompson and West, reprinted 1959, Howell North, Berkeley, CA
Bufkin, Donald, The Lost County of Pah-Ute, in Nevada Official Bicentennial Book, 1976, Nevada Publications, Las Vegas
Edwards, Elbert, Early Mormon Settlements in Southern Nevada, in Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. VIII, #1, Spring 1965
Gamett, James, and Paher, Stanley, Nevada Post Offices, An Illustrated History, 1983, Nevada Publications, Las Vegas
Hafen, Arabell Lee, 100 Years on the Muddy, 1967, Art City Publishing, Springville, Utah
Paher, Stanley, Callville; Head of Navigation, Arizona Territory, nd, Nevada Publications, Las Vegas
Paher, Stanley, Nevada Ghost Towns and Mining Camps, 1984, Nevada Publications, Las Vegas
Perkins, Orville, Hooky Beans and Willows, nd, self published
Steiner, Harold Austin, The Old Spanish Trail Across the Mojave Desert, 1999, Haldor Company, Las Vegas
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